The Commons:

Key Words:
Common Goods, Common Pool Resources, Common Property Resources, Common Property Regimes, Collective Action, Collective Intention

Framing Questions Related to the Commons:


Argyle, M. 1991: Cooperation: The Basis of Sociability. Routledge. London.

Aumannn, R. 1996: Agreeing to Disagree, The Annals of Statistics 4: 1236-1239.

Axelrod, R. 1984: The Evolution of Cooperation. Basic Books. New York.

Axelrod, R. 1997: The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration. Princeton University Press. Princeton, N.J.

Baltzer,Ulrich 2002: Joint Action of Large Groups, in George Meggle (ed.), Social Facts and Intentionality, Dr. Hänsel-Hohenhausen AG, Frankfurt: 1-18.

Barnes, Barry 1988: The Nature of Power. Polity Press. Cambridge.

Bicchieri, C. 1993: Rationality and Coordination. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Bittner, Rüdiger 2002: An Action for Two, in George Meggle (ed.), Social Facts and Intentionality, Dr. Hänsel-Hohenhausen AG, Frankfurt: 35-42.

Bratman, M. 1999: Faces of Intention: Selected Essays on Intention and Agency. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Cohen, P., Morgan, J. and Pollack, M. (eds.) 1990: Intentions in Communication. A Bradford Book. The MIT Press. Cambridge. Mass.

Common property resources: ecology and community-based sustainable development, at ix, 2 (Fikret Berkes ed., 1989)

Davis, John. 2002: Collective intentionality and individual behavior, in E. Fullwood (ed.), Intersubjectivity in Economics, London: Routledge: 11-27.

Dawes, R., van Kragt, A. and Orbell, J. 1990: Cooperation for the Benefit of Us - Not Me, or My Conscience, in Mansbridge, J. (ed.): Beyond Self-Interest. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago: 97-110.

Gilbert, M. 1989: On Social Facts. Routledge. London.

Gilbert, M. 1996: Living Together: Rationality, Sociality & Obligation. Rowman and Littlefield. Lanham.

Graham, K. 2002: Practical Reasoning in a Social World: How We Act Together, Cambridge University Press.

Gruner, R. 1976: On the Action of Social Groups, Inquiry19: 443-454.

Haddadi, A. 1995: Communication and Cooperation in Agent Systems: A Pragmatic Theory. Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York.

Hardin, R. 1982: Collective Action. The Johns Hopkins Press for Resources for the Future. Baltimore.

Hardin, Russell (1982). Collective Action. John Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.__ISBN 0-8018-2818-8__

Hinde, R. and Groebel, J. (eds.) 1991: Cooperation and Prosocial Behaviour. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Kutz, C. 2000: Complicity, Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Karl Popper, Epistemology Without a Knowing Subject, in objective knowledge: an evolutionary approach 118 (1972).

Miller, Kaarlo 2003: Commitments, in M. Sintonen, P. Ylikoski & K. Miller (eds.) Realism in Action. Essays in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Synthese Library Vol. 321. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Making the commons work: theory, practice, and policy, at xi, 4 (Daniel W. Bromley et al. eds., 1992);

Nirmal Sengupta, Managing common property: irrigation in India and the Philippines (1991)

Olson, M. 1965: The Logic of Collective Action, Harvard UP. Cambridge, Mass.

Praveen k. jha ed., Land reforms in india- volume 7, Issues of Equity in Rural Madhya Pradesh (New Delhi: Sage, 2002).

Robert Wade, Village republics: economic conditions for collective action in South India xiv (1994).

Sandler Todd (1992) Collective action: Theory and applications. University of Michigan Press.

Searle, J. (1990): Collective Intentions and Actions, in Cohen, P., Morgan, J. and Pollack, M. (eds.) (1990): Intentions in Communication. A Bradford Book. The MIT Press. Cambrige, Massachusetts: 401-415.

Stein, A. 1990: Why Nations Cooperate: Circumstance and Choice in International Relations. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY.

Tuomela, R. 1984: A Theory of Social Action. Synthese Library. Reidel Publishing Company. Dordrecht and Boston.

Tuomela, R. and Bonnevier-Tuomela, M. 1997: From Social Imitation to Teamwork, in Holmström-Hintikka, G. and Tuomela, R. (eds.): Contemporary Action Theory, Vol. II: Social Action. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht and Boston:1-47.

Vandana Shiva, Water Wars: Privatization, Pollution, and Profit, London Pluto Press [u.a.] 2002

Vandana Shiva (Editor), Carlo Petrini (Contributor),and Michael Pollan (Contributor), Manifestos on the Future of Food and Seed

Ware, R. 1988: Group Action and Social Ontology, Analyse und Kritik 10: 48-70.


A sea of small boats (John C. Cordell ed., 1989)

Bratman, M. 1992: Shared Cooperative Activity, The Philosophical Review 101: 327-341.

Cohen, P. and Levesque, H. 1991: Teamwork, Noûs 25: 487-512.

Conte, R. and Castelfranchi, C. 1995: Cognitive and Social Action. UCL Press. London.

Copp, D. 1979: Collective Actions and Secondary Actions, American Philosophical Quarterly 16: 177-186.

Copp, D. 1980: Hobbes on Artificial Persons and Collective Actions, The Philosophical Review LXXXIX: 579-606.

Elinor Ostrom, Governing the commons 2 (1990)

Elster, J. 1985: Rationality, Morality, and Collective Action, Ethics 96: 136-155.

F. A. Hayek, The Use of Knowledge in Society, 35 AM. Econ. Rev. 519, 521 (1945).

Gilbert, Margaret (2006a), Rationality in Collective Action, Philosophy of the Social Sciences 36 (1): 3–17, doi:10.1177/0048393105284167

Hampton, J. 1987: Free-Rider Problems in the Production of Collective Goods, Economics and Philosophy 3: 245-273.

Katar Singh, Managing common pool resources: principles and case studies 314-19 (1994).

Kutz, C. 2000: Acting together, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 61(1): 1-31.

Levesque, H., Cohen, P. and Nunes, J. (1990): On Acting Together, in Proceedings of Eighth National
Conference on Artificial Intelligence, vol I. The MIT Press. Massachusetts: 94-99.

Meinzen-Dick, R. and M. di Gregorio, eds. (2004) Collective Action and Property Rights for Sustainable Development, 2020 Focus No. 11. International Food Policy Research Institute: Washington, DC.

Michael A. Heller, The Tragedy of the Anticommons: Property in the Transition from Marx to Markets, 111 Harv. L. Rev. 621 (1998).

Miller, Seumas 1992: Joint Action, Philosophical Papers XXI: 1-23.

Miller, Seumas 1995: Intentions, Ends and Joint Action, Philosophical Papers XXIV: 51-66.

Olson, Mancur The Logic of Collective Action : Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Revised edition ed.). Harvard University Press, (1971) [1965].

Ostrom, Elinor. (1990). Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge University Press.ISBN 978-0-521-40599-7

Property-Rights Regimes and Natural Resources: A Conceptual Analysis, 68 Land Econ. 249,

Robert C. Ellickson, Order without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991

Robyn M. Dawes, The Commons Dilemma Game: An N-Person Mixed-Motive Game With a Dominating Strategy for Defection, 13 OR. Res. Bull. (1973).

Sandu, G. and Tuomela, R. 1996: Joint Action and Group Action Made Precise, Synthese 105: 319-345.

Schulz, U., Albers, W. and Mueller, U. (eds.) 1994: Social Dilemmas and Cooperation. Springer-Verlag. Berlin and Heidelberg.

Sugden, R. 1993: Thinking as a Team: Towards an Explanation of Nonselfish Behavior, Social Philosophy and Policy 10: 69-89.

The traditional knowledge and management of coastal systems in Asia and the Pacific (Kenneth Ruddle & Robert E. Johannes eds., 1985).

Tollefsen, D. 2002: Challenging Epistemic Individualism, Protosociology 16, June 2002.

Tollefsen, D. 2002: Collective Intentionality and the Social Sciences, Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (1), March 2002.

Tollefsen, D. 2002: Organizations as True Believers, Journal of Social Philosophy xxxiii, Number 3, Fall 2002.

Tuomela, M., 2003, A Collective’s Trust in a Collective’s Action, Protosociology, Understanding the Social II: Philosophy of Sociality, 18-19:87-126

Tuomela, R. 1989: Actions by Collectives, Philosophical Perspectives 3: 471-496.

Tuomela, R. 1989: Collective Action, Supervenience, and Constitution, Synthese 80: 243-266.

Tuomela, R. 1992: On the structural aspects of collective action and free-riding, Theory and Decision 32: 165-202.

Tuomela, R. 1993: What is Cooperation?, Erkenntnis 38: 87-101.

Tuomela, R. 1995: The Importance of Us: A Philosophical Study of Basic Social Notions. Stanford Series in Philosophy. Stanford University Press.

Tuomela, R. and Miller, K. 1992: We-intentions, Free-riding and Being in Reserve, Erkenntnis 36: 25-52.

Tuomela, R. and Tuomela, M., 2005, Cooperation and Trust in Group Contexts, forthcoming in Mind and Society

Williams, B. 1988: Formal Structures and Social Reality, in Gambetta, D. (ed.): Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. Basil Blackwell. Oxford: 3-13.
Online Resources

  1. Digital Library of the Commons:

  1. International Association for the Study of the Commons